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one that it 的区别  

2014-12-20 21:36:12|  分类: 词语辨析 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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one that it 的区别
I.             练习it/one /that三者均可用作代词, 指代前面提到的名词。一般说来, it指代同名同物; one与that则指代同名异物。
I have lost my umbrella; I'm looking for it. (该句中it就是指前面的my umbrella)
I have lost my umbrella; I think I must buy one. (one在该句中表泛指, 因为my umbrella已经丢了)
The umbrella you bought is cheaper than that I bought. (替代词that在该句中特指“the umbrella I bought”, 以区别“the umbrella you bought”)
II. one与that虽可用来指代同名异物, 但one为泛指, 相当于a/an+名词; that为特指, 相当于the +名词。所以one所指代的名词的修饰语一般为 a/an /some /any; that所指代的名词的修饰语往往是the /this /that。
A chair made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. (该句中one可以换成a chair)
The water in the cup is hotter than that in the pot. (该句中that可以换成 the water)
III. one只能代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时用ones ,those; that既可以代替不可数名词也可以代替可数名词单数, 代替可数名词复数时those。
I like this pen more than that one. (one代替可数名词单数pen)
There were a few young people and some older ones in the house. (ones代替可数名词复数people)
Mary's handwriting is far better than that of Peter. (that代替不可数名词 handwriting)
These pictures are more beautiful than those. (those代替可数名词复数 pictures)
IV. one既可代替事物, 也可代替人, that只能代替事物而不能代替人。有时可以用the one或the ones代替that或those。
The one /That on the table is mine. (该句中The one代替事物, 并且也可以用That)
He is the teacher, the one who is loved by the students. (该句中the one代替人, 不能用that)
He advised the farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones /those that had the best color. (该句中the ones代替事物, 并且也可以用those)
V. one一般有前置修饰语, 有时也可有后置修饰语或不用修饰语。而 that不能有前置修饰语, 但可有后置修饰语。
Cook was a strict but good captain, one who took good care of his sailors.
The water in the well is cleaner than that in the river.
VI. it可以替代句中的不定式或从句等, 充当形式主语或形式宾语。one与that均无此用法。
It is known to everybody that the moon travels around the earth once every month.
I found it hard to get on with her.
VII. it与that均可以替代上文全句的内容或部分内容, 而one /ones则不可以。
He has saved my life; I'll never forget it. (it代替第一分句)
Tom is painting his house. I am told he does it every four years. (it代替前面分句的部分内容painting his house)
Let's say we meet here at three o'clock. That ought to give you time to buy everything. (That代替前面表述的内容)
[相关练习]
语法特
A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others
2. I find _____ easy enough to get on with Pam.
A. that B. this C. one D. it
答案1. Mr Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except _____ who had already taken them. X 
 
3. If I can stop her coming to you, I shall do_____.
A. those B. which C. these D. it
4. I haven't a pen. Can you lend me_____?
A. these B. those C. them D. one
5. _____ is necessary that I get the text of my revision typed.
A. There B. This C. That D. It
6. I took _____ for granted that you would stay with us. x
A. it B. that C. these D. them
7. Few pleasures can equal _____ of a cool drink on a hot day.
A. some B. any C. that D. those
8. Of all my old friends, the only _____ I saw much of was Betty.
A. it B. that C. one D. this
 
II. Key: 1—8ADDDD ACC
 
2.——Did you have my pen,Mary?          
——Yes, I have ______ right here.
      A.one      B.it                  C. this                 D. that
3.I have no bookself   in my room ,so I'm going to make ______ myself .
    A.it           B. this               C. that                D. one
4.    May I help you with some gloves, sir?
       Yes, I'd like to try on those blues ______ .
        A.those        B.ones          C. two               D.pair
5.The monkey's   hands are very skilled like ________ .
    A.a man             B.that of a man         C.those of a man        D. one of a man
(答案     2.B   3.D   4.B     5.C)
 
 
it/one/ones/that/those的区别难点
一、替代表泛指的单数名词,通常用one。如
Two heads are better than one. 两人智慧胜一人。
I lost my old camera; this is a new one.
Did you get a ticket? — Yes, I managed to get one.
注:若 one 前没有形容词的修饰,则其前不能有不定冠词。比较:
I’m looking for a flat. I’d like a small one with a garden.
I’m looking for a flat. I’d like one with a garden.
没有形容词修饰的 one 前不能用不定冠词,但可用 another。如:
This pen doesn’t work. I must buy another one. 这支钢笔坏了,我要另买一支了。
另外,注意它与表特指的 it 的区别。如:
Can you lend me a pen?—Sorry. I haven’t got one.
Can I borrow your pen?—Sorry, I’m using it.
二、替代表特指的单数名词
替代表特指的单数名词,可用 it, that, the one。三者的区别是:
1. 替代单数可数名词时,三者均可用;替代不可数名词时,不能用the one,而要用 it 或 that。此时it与that的区别是:表示同一事物时,用it;表示同类事物时,用 that 或 the one。如:
The weather here is too cold. I don’t like it.(it 在此指前面提到的 the weather)
The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Guangzhou.(that 在此指代的天气与前面提到的天气为同类)
My uncle bought me a dictionary and I like it very much.(it 在此就是指前面提到的叔叔给我买的词典)
Your dictionary is more useful than the one my uncle gave me.(the one 在此表示与前面提到的词典为同类)
2. 替代事物时,三者均可用;替代人时,只能用the one。如:
Who is her husband?—The one by the window.
注:当要替代性别不明的婴儿时可用 it。
3. 当有前置定语修饰时,只能用 the one。如:
Which do you want?—The red one.
She would rather have the small one than the large one.
4. 当有后置定语修饰时,通常用the one。如:
My room is better than the one next door.
He said he would have the one near him.
但是,若后置定语为 of 引起的介词短语,则通常用 that。如:
The population of China is much larger than that of Japan.
三、替代表泛指的复数名词
替代表泛指的复数名词,通常用ones。如:
Hard beds are healthier than soft ones.
Green apples often taste better than red ones.
四、替代表特指的复数名词
替代表特指的复数名词,通常用the ones。如:
I’d like to try on those shoes. The ones at the front of the window.
Don’t buy the expensive apples; get the cheaper ones.
注:在口语中,也可用 those 来替代表特指的复数名词,尤其是当其后有of引导的介词短语或who引导的定语从句修饰时。如:
Waves of red light are about twice as long as those of blue light.
Those of you who wish to go on the trip may sign up here.
五、几点重要的补充说明
1. 当替代词one / ones 紧跟在形容词最高级、序数词以及 this, that, these, those, which, either, neither, another 等限定词之后时,通常可以省略。如:
I think my dog’s the fastest. (one)
Either (one) will suit me.
Let’s have another. (one)
2. 复数形式的ones之前一般不直接用名词所有格、物主代词、数词以及 some, any, both, several, dozen, own 等词修饰。如:
Have you got any drawing-pins? Can I borrow some please?(不能说:... some ones ...)
Do you have any new diaries?—We don’t have any at the moment.(不能说:... any ones ...)
注:如果 ones 前有描绘性形容词修饰,则可以使用上述词语。如:
误:her ones / some ones / any ones / five ones / your own ones
正:her red ones / some new ones / any old ones / five bad ones / your own nice ones
3. 当一个名词受另一个名词修饰时,通常不宜用one(s)来替代。如:
Do you need coffee cups or tea cups?(不能说:... or tea ones? )
但若一个名词受表材料的名词修饰,可用one(s)替代。
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